Sunday, April 27, 2008

Module 3 reflection

Module 3 was on Design and Development phase of the ID process. The design and development phase of instructional designing continues from the foundation laid out in the analysis phase and considers instructional strategies to be used for sequencing and scoping the content, selection of media and assessment of learning outcomes. According to the University of Alberta (2004) website on instructional designing, “the design and development phase is a more creative and challenging stage” as instructional designers are tasked to “imagine and create ways for learners to learn the material and to be motivated while doing it and be able to use the learning in meaningful ways afterwards.”

A very interesting concept which I have always used but never knew about the theories behind it was Reigeluth’s Elaboration theory – from simple to complex sequence. Another interesting article that I read in this module was from Richard Clarke’s (1994) paper on ‘Media will never influence learning’. In this paper he argues that media does not have any learning benefits on the learner but rather it can be seen to have only economic benefits to the learner as he aptly puts it “Media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence learning achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in our nutrition”. This school of thought left me critically thinking about the role of media in education.

I also managed to read a very good paper by David Boud (1998) on bad habits of assessment. In his paper, Boud (1998) emphasizes that assessment is a vital part of the teaching and learning process which focuses on educational goals. He further adds that well designed assessments are authentic and set in a realistic context, permits a holistic rather than a fragmented approach, are flexible for learners, involves learners in meaningful learning and adopts deep approaches to learning, and promotes self assessment or reflection.

Other readings which I made through this module (in addition to the readings given by Shirley) which I found very interesting while engaging and immersing in Module 3 were:

Curtz, T. (date unknown). Teaching self assessment, Retrieved on April 14, 2008, from

Dobrovolny, J. (2003). A model for self-paced technology-based training, Learning Circuits, Retrieved on April 14, 2008, from

Ely, D. (2003). Selecting media for distance education. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Technology, Retrieved on April 11, 2008, from

Nuhfer, E. (2007). Self-reflection exercises and knowledge surveys in learning: A fractal thinker’s view of the power of the affective domain, 2007 POD Annual Meeting in Pittsburg, Retrieved on April 14, 2008, from

Posner, G. & Strike, K. (1976). A categorization scheme for principles of sequencing content, Review of Educational Research, American Educational Research Association, Vol. 43 (4), pp. 665-690, Retrieved on April 11, 2008, from

Smaldino, S. (1999). Instructional design for distance education. Tech Trends, Vol. 43 (5), pp. 9-13.

University of Alabama at Birmingham (2005). Media selection and design, Retrieved on April 11, 2008, from

University of Alberta Department of Educational Psychology (2004). Instructional strategies and sequencing, Retrieved on April 11, 2008, from

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